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      Glossary of terms


      A

      A/P

      Anterior/Posterior (anatomic terms)

      AAOS

      American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

      Abdomen

      A portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis

      Abduct

      To draw away from the midline

      Abduction

      The act of drawing away from the midline; opposite of adduction

      Abductor

      A muscle performing the function of abduction

      Abscess

      Localized collection of pus

      Acetabulum

      The cavity in the os coxae (hip) into which the head of the femur fits

      Acromion

      Bony process of the scapula which forms the point of the shoulder

      Acute

      Severe and/or short duration; used in speaking of duration and severity of disease

      Adamant

      Extremely hard, as enamel of tooth

      Adduct

      To draw toward the midline

      Adduction

      The act of drawing toward the midline; opposite abduction

      Allograft

      A tissue transplanted to a different individual of the same species

      Alloy

      A mix of metals designed to improve implant material properties for specific purposes

      All-poly

      A component composed entirely of polyethylene, with no metal parts

      Amphiarthrosis

      A joint with little movement and no joint cavity

      Anconeus

      Pertaining to the elbow

      Ankylosis

      The fusion of a joint

      Anteflexion

      A forward curvature; a condition in which the upper part of an organ is bent forward; opposite of retroflexion

      Anterior

      Placed in the front or forward part; opposite of posterior

      Anteversion

      A forward turning; a condition in which an entire organ is abnormally tipped forward

      Apex

      Top or summit

      Aponeurosis

      A flat sheet of white fibrous tissue, usually serving as an attachment for a muscle; plural aponeuroses; aponeurotica, Latin adjective

      Appliance

      Device used in support or fracture fixation external or internal

      Apposition

      The state of being fitted together, being in contact at the ends (see also mineral apposition)

      Aqueous

      Watery

      Arthritis

      Inflammation of a joint

      Arthrodesis

      Fusion of a joint, eliminating all motion

      Arthroplasty

      The surgical reconstruction of a joint

      Arthrosis

      A joint: from the Greek

      Arthrotomy

      Cutting into a joint

      Articular

      Pertaining to a joint; surfaces that "fit together"

      Articulation

      Movement of a joint; from the Latin

      Asepsis

      A condition free from germs; free from infection

      Aspect

      Position, surface, or face

      Aspirate

      To remove by suction

      Asymmetric design

      A design which mirrors the natural, anatomic contours of a joint, a design which comes in right and left configurations

      Atrophy

      A wasting away of tissue usually through disuse

      Autograft

      A tissue transplanted from one part to another part of the same body

      Autonomic

      ?Being self-controlled; independent

      Axial

      ?Pertaining to the axis or line about which a body turns, therefore pertaining to the trunk; opposite of appendicular

      B

      Beads, beaded

      Term used to describe implant coatings made of tiny spheres (beading)

      Biaxial

      Turning about two axes (having two axes)

      Biconcave

      Having two concave surfaces

      Bilateral

      Occurring on both sides of a midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body (ex. bilateral knee replacement means having both knees replaced)

      Biocompatibility

      Materials that can coexist with living tissue without being harmful or toxic or being rejected by the host. The most common materials for joint replacement are polyethylenes, metals and ceramics, each has specific biocompatible characteristics

      Biomechanics

      The study of the relationship between forces and motion in biologic systems like the human body

      Bipolar

      Having two poles or processes

      Blood

      A fluid tissue circulating through heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries

      Bone cement

      Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone (see also cement)

      Brachial

      Pertaining to the arm

      Broach

      A tool or instrument used to enlarge the interior canal of bones to allow for insertion of implants, broaching is the process of enlarging the canal

      C

      Cage

      A type of spinal implant

      Calcaneus

      The heel bone; also termed calcaneum

      Calcar

      A thickened plate of bone near the head of the femur

      Cancellous

      Lattice-like bone structure; softer bone

      Cancellous bone

      A type of bone characterized by a spongy or lattice-like structure. Also known as Trabecular Bone.

      Cancellous-structured titanium

      A specially-manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits bone ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also CSTi)

      Capitate

      Bone of the wrist having head-shaped process.

      Capitulum

      Little head.

      Capsular

      A ligament which surrounds a movable joint.

      Caput

      Head; capitis, "of the head."

      Carpal

      Pertaining to the wrist.

      Carpus

      The wrist; carpi, "of the wrist."

      Caudal

      Pertaining to any tail-like structure; inferior in position.

      Cement

      Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone. (Bone cement)

      Cemented

      An implant which is secured in a patient’s body with the aid of bone cement or the process of using cement to help fix an implant.

      Central

      Situated in the midportion as opposed to peripheral.

      Chronic

      Of long duration; opposite of acute.

      Circumduct

      To rotate in a cone shape around a single point, as in the shoulder joint.

      Circumflex

      Bent or turned about.

      Clavicle

      The collar bone

      Clinical pathway

      Established methodologies and decision trees for use by health professionals and patients in planning and preparing for medical intervention.

      Coatings

      Any number of different materials applied to the surface of an implant or prosthesis to aid in fixation; porous coatings generally permit ingrowth into the implant. (see also porous, beads)

      Cobalt-chrome

      A metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants. (also see CoCr)

      Coccyx

      Last, lowest portion of vertebral column (tailbone).

      CoCr

      Cobalt Chrome Alloy, a metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants.

      Collar, collared

      The top edge of a hip stem implant which rests on the top edges of the bone in which it was implanted.

      Component

      A part of an implant system, for example the patellar component is that piece that either replaces or enhances the original patella (knee cap).

      Concave

      Having a depressed surface; center is at a lower level than edge; opposite of convex.

      Condyle

      A rounded knob on the end of a hone; a knuckle.

      Condyloid

      Resembling a knuckle.

      Congenital

      Present at birth, as in CDH, congenital dislocated hip.

      Congruent

      The degree of constraint of two articular implants. (congruence)

      Convex

      Having a rounded elevated surface; opposite of concave.

      Coracoid

      Like a crow's beak; variant of coronoid.

      Costal

      Pertaining to a rib or ribs.

      Coxa

      The hip; coxae, "of the hip."

      Cranial

      Pertaining to the cranium.

      Cranium

      The skull or brain pan.

      Cruciate

      Shaped like a cross.

      Cruciate ligament

      Any paired set of ligaments that cross over each other in an "X" formation, usually used to refer to the posterior cruciate ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which help stabilize the forward and backward motion of the knee.

      Cruciate-retaining

      A knee system design that allows the surgeon to keep the patient’s cruciate ligament.

      Cruciate-sacrificing

      A knee system in which the design of the implant must serve to stabilize the forward and back motion of the knee components because of an excised or deficient patient’s ligament. (see also PS)

      CSTi

      A specially manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also Cancellous-structured titanium)

      Cubital

      Pertaining to the tile space in front of the elbow joint.

      Custom

      An implant manufactured to the demands of a surgeon based on the specific needs of one patient

      Cyclic fatigue

      A biomechanical measure of stress placed on a material, measured in "cycles" of regular motion (as in joint motion - rotation, bending, etc.)

      D

      Deltoid

      Triangular; resembling the Greek letter, delta.

      Design rationale

      The justification for an implant design based on extensive research into materials, clinical data, function, style, anatomical constraints, etc.

      Diagnosis

      Recognition of disease from symptoms.

      Diathrosis

      A freely moveable joint; plural diarthroses.

      Digiti

      Of a digit.

      Digitorum

      Of the digits.

      Dislocation

      The displacement of any part, especially the removal temporarily of a bone from its normal position in a joint

      Distal

      Remote; opposite of proximal.

      Dorsiflex

      To turn toward the back; opposite of palmar flex.

      E

      Endosteum

      Tissue surrounding the medullary cavity of bone.

      Epi

      A prefix meaning "on" or "above", opposite of hypo.

      Epicondyle

      A prominence or a bone on or upon a condyle.

      Epiphysis

      A part of process of a bone which ossifles separately before making osseous union with the main portion of the bone; the "growth plate" of bones

      Etiology

      The study of the causes of disease

      Eversion

      The act of turning outward; opposite of inversion.

      Evert

      To turn out; to turn tile sole of the foot outward opposite of invert.

      Extension

      A movement at a joint bringing the two parts into or toward a straight line from a flexed position; opposite of flexion

      External

      On the surface or outer side; opposite of internal. Latin adjective, externus or externa

      Extra

      Prefix meaning "outside of," opposite of intra

      F

      FDA

      Food and Drug Administration

      Femur

      Thigh; bone of the thigh; femoral is the adjective; femoris, "of the thigh." Smaller bone of lower leg; tile splint bone

      Fixation

      The act, process or operation of holding, suturing or fastening something into a fixed position. In orthopedics, often refers to the stability and immobilization of an implant into the patient’s body

      Flexion

      Sagittal plane movement in which the anterior surfaces of two segments are brought closer to each other; opposite of extension; bending of a joint

      Flexure

      The curved or bent part of a structure

      Foramen

      A hole; plural, foramina, or foramens

      Fossa

      A pit or hollow; plural, fossae

      Fracture

      A break in the continuity of bone

      G

      Glenoid

      Resembling a pit or pocket. The glenoid fossa of the scapula is very shallow. Analogous to the acetabulum of the hip

      GMP

      Good Manufacturing Practices, part of total quality systems

      H

      Hallux

      The great toe; hallucis "of the great toe"

      Harris Hip Scores

      A numerical rating scale used for evaluation of the hip. The Harris Hip Rating Scale evaluates pain, function, absence of deformity and range of motion. One hundred is the highest possible total.

      HSS Knee Scores

      Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scores, a numerical scale for rating knees.

      Humerus

      The upper arm bone.

      Hydroxyapatite (HA)

      A bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic similar to normal bone, may be applied to implant surfaces.

      Hyper

      Prefix meaning above; opposite of hypo.

      Hyperplasia

      Increase in size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.

      Hypertrophy

      Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.

      Hypo

      A prefix meaning below or under; opposite or epi or hyper.

      I

      IDE

      Investigational Device Exemption (studies of experimental products).

      Ilium

      The bone of the flank; adjective is iliac; ilio is the combining form.

      Implant

      A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body. (see also stem, prosthesis)

      Index

      Referring to the forefinger or "pointing" finger.

      Inferior

      Situated or placed below; opposite of superior; inferioris, a Latin form of the adjective.

      Infra

      A prefix meaning "beneath," opposite of supra.

      Ingrowth

      The process of living bone or tissue growing up to and into the surface of an implant, very important for stabilization and long-term life of the implant. (bone or bony ingrowth)

      Instrument

      A tool or implement used in surgery.

      Inter

      A prefix meaning "between".

      Interbody fusion

      A surgical technique for achieving bony fusion between invertebral bodies, term used to describe a specific back surgery technique.

      Interface

      Surface forming a common boundary between two bodies (used to describe the interaction of implant and living tissue).

      Internal

      Within or on the inside.

      Intra

      A prefix meaning "within".

      Inversion

      The act of tuning inward; opposite of eversion.

      Invert

      To turn in; to turn the sole of the foot inward; opposite of evert.

      Involuntary

      Performed against the will or consent.

      Ischium

      Bone of the hip; adjective is ischiatic, ischial, or sciatic.

      ISO

      International Standards Organization, a standards issuing body.

      K

      Knee Society Score

      A numerical scale for evaluating knee function developed by the Knee Society.

      Kyphosis

      An abnormal condition (curvature) of the spine; hunch-backed.

      L

      Lateral

      Pertaining to the side; opposite of medial.

      LD

      Low-demand or low density

      LDPE

      Low Density Polyethylene

      Ligament

      Fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones serving to bind them together and to facilitate or limit motion.

      Lordosis

      Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.

      Lumen

      Space within a tube or organ.

      Lunate

      A bone of the carpus shaped like a crescent moon.

      Luxation

      Dislocation of a joint.

      M

      M/L

      Medial/Lateral (anatomic term)

      Major

      Larger, opposite of minor, majus is neuter adjective.

      Malleolus

      A little hammer (mallet); a hammer-shaped process; ankle bone. Plural, malleoli.

      Mandible

      Bone of lower jaw.

      Marrow

      Soft central part of a bone.

      Maxilla

      A jawbone; particularly the bone of the upper jaw.

      Media

      Middle

      Medial

      Pertaining to the center; opposite of lateral.

      Median

      Pertaining to the middle; that is, between two other structures.

      Meniscectomy

      Removal of the meniscus cartilage of the knee.

      Meniscus

      A "C" shaped cartilage in the knee which provides a stabilization system for the knee and a measure of shock absorption

      Metacarpus

      Beyond the instep; the five bones of the foot between the toes and tarsal bone

      Metal-backed

      Term used to describe implants that have a polyethylene liner set in a metal shell or on a metal base, the metal portion would rest in a prepared area in the bone and the polyethylene side would move against other metal components

      Minor

      Smaller, opposite of major.

      Morphology

      The study of the structure of organisms, used colloquially to refer to the structure of body parts

      N

      Navicular

      Boat shaped; carpal bone at the base of the thumb. Also called the scaffoid

      Necrosis

      Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy tissue.

      Non-porous

      An implant designed to be used with bone cement for stabilization; a surface that is not designed for nor coated with surfaces for ingrowth

      O

      O.R.I.F.

      Open Reduction, Internal Fixation.

      Oblique

      Slanting; between horizontal and vertical direction..; Latin adjective, obliquus

      Olecranon

      From the Greek word for elbow. The prominence at the proximal end of the ulna

      Opposition

      The act of opposing one part to another.

      Orbital

      Pertaining to the orbit (eye).

      Organ

      A group of tissues having a special function.

      Orthopedics

      Branch of medical science that deals with treatment of disorders involving locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscle, fascia.

      Orthopedist

      A physician specializing in orthopedics.

      Os

      Bone; Os coxae - hip bone.

      Osmosis

      Passage of fluid across a membrane from a lesser to a more highly concentrated solution

      Ossification

      Formation of bone.

      Osteophyte

      An abnormal bony outgrowth

      Osteoporosis

      Increased porosity of bone.

      Osteotomy

      Cutting and repositioning bone to more functional position.

      Outcome management

      The process of collecting, tracking and interpreting outcomes data

      Outcomes

      The results of surgery in terms of patient satisfaction, reduction of pain, improved function, etc. Outcomes are tracked by hospitals and practices.

      Oxygenless

      A patented procedure used by Zimmer in the packaging of polyethylenes where oxygen is removed from the packaging. Lab testing has shown the process decreases the wear rates of PE (polyethylene).

      P

      Palmar

      The palm of the hand.

      Para

      Prefix meaning "beside," "accessory to" or near.

      Patella

      The kneecap

      Patient Satisfaction Surveys

      Surveys which seek to measure patients’ satisfaction with their surgery, recovery, etc. These form part of the outcomes data that surgeons and hospitals track.

      Pearls

      Expert surgical techniques developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures. (see surgical pearls)

      Pedal

      Pertaining to the foot.

      Pelvis

      A basin or basin-like structure.

      Peri

      Prefix meaning "around."

      Peripheral

      Located on or near the surface of a part.

      Pes

      The foot; pedis, "of the foot."

      Phalanges

      Plural of phalanx, which refers to any bone of the finger or toe.

      Plantar

      Pertaining to the sole of the foot; plaritaris; Latin adjective plantae, "of the sole of the foot."

      Plasma

      Fluid portion of the blood.

      Plasma spray

      A coating for implants

      Plastics

      A common term that in orthopedic devices refers usually to polyethylene and more specifically to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). (see also polyethylene, UHMWPE)

      PMA

      Pre-Market Approval (FDA approval after IDE study is complete).

      PMMA

      Poly methylmethacrylate (bone cement). (see also cement, bone cement)

      Polyethylene

      A type of plastic formed by the polymerization of ethylene. Different structural properties come from differences in molecular weight, branching, cross-linkage and crystallinity. The most common form used in orthopedic devices is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).

      Pore

      Small holes or spaces on the surface or interior of a material.

      Porous

      Characterized by pores and open spaces.

      Porous-coated

      The design feature of a type of implant where the metal has small surface openings into which bone or tissue is intended to grow for permanent stabilization.

      Posterior

      Situated behind or toward the back; opposite of anterior.

      Press-fit

      Describes the fit at the interface of an implant with the surrounding bone; the implant is implanted without cement and is tightly "pressed" or impacted into the patient’s bone. (see also uncemented)

      Primary

      Initial or first; in joint replacement, this term is used to indicate the first surgery to repair or replace a joint as opposed to a revision surgery which replaces or revises an implant.

      Process

      A slender projecting point; Latin, processus.

      Prognosis

      The likely outcome of an illness

      Pronate

      To turn palm downward (opposite: supinate).

      Prone

      Lying with face downward (opposite: supine).

      Prosthesis

      Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute. An artificial organ or part.

      Protract

      To extend forward or outward; opposite of retract.

      Proximal

      Nearest; opposite of distal.

      PS

      Posterior Stabilized; a posterior stabilized knee is a type of semiconstrained total knee system that compensates for a deficient or absent posterior cruciate ligament through its surface geometry (its design minimizes forward and backward movement of the knee and substitutes for the function of the ligament).

      Pseudarthrosis

      A false joint developing after a fracture that has not united.

      Pseudo

      A prefix signifying "false.

      PT

      Premier Total

      Pubis

      Pubic bone

      R

      Radiolucent

      Allowing x-rays to pass through, radiolucent areas appear dark on x-rays.

      Radius

      A bone of the forearm.

      Ream,reaming

      A verb meaning to gouge out holes or enlarge holes already made, in orthopedic surgery, bones need to be reamed to allow for the implantation of a prosthesis.

      Recurvatum

      Hyperextension of the knee.

      Reduction

      Restoration to normal position.

      Retract

      To pull back; opposite of protract.

      Retrieve

      To remove an implant from a patient (retrieved, retrieval)

      Retro

      Prefix meaning behind.

      Retroflexion

      A backward bending of one part of an organ on another portion; Opposite of anteflexion.

      Retroversion

      A backward turning; the entire organ is turned backward; opposite of anteversion.

      Revision

      In orthopedic surgery, this term indicates a subsequent surgery to alter, replace or remove an implant

      Roentgenogram

      A photograph made by means of roentgen rays or x-rays. The rays are named in honor of their discoverer.

      Roentgenoscopy

      Examination by means of a fluoroscope

      ROM

      The area through which a joint may be moved in all planes, measured in degrees. The greater the ROM, the more flexible the joint. One of the goals of joint replacement is to improve a patient’s ROM in the joint that may have been lost to arthritis, trauma or deformity. (range of motion)

      Rotation

      The act of turning about a centrally located length axis

      S

      Sac

      Any bag-like organ

      Sacrum

      Five fused vertebrae below the last lumbar vertebra

      Sagittal

      Pertaining to the median vertical plane of the body

      Scapula

      The shoulder blade.

      Scoliosis

      Lateral abnormal curvature of the spine

      Semilunar

      Shaped like a half moon

      Septic

      Infection due to presence of pathogenlc organisms

      Serrated

      Having a saw-tooth edge

      Serum

      Clear portion of any animal fluid

      Shear

      A biomechanical term meaning a load applied parallel to the surface of a structure; shear strength is the amount of resistance in a material to angular deformation (bending) resulting from shear forces

      Shell

      The acetabular component, the part of a hip replacement system that serves for the hip socket

      Sinus

      A cavity

      Skeleton

      The hard framework of the body. The bones of the body collectively

      Spinous

      A spine-like process; Latin adjective, spinatus

      SS

      Stainless Steel

      Stem

      A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body (see also implant, prosthesis)

      Sterile

      Clean and free from all living micro-organisms

      Sternum

      The breast bone

      Sub

      Prefix meaning "below" or "beneath"

      Subclavian

      Beneath the clavicle

      Subluxation

      A partial or incomplete dislocation

      Submaxillary

      Beneath the maxilla

      Subscapular

      Beneath the scapula

      Subsidence

      The settling of a prosthesis after implantation; it is determined by comparing x-rays immediately after surgery to x-rays taken at a later date. Subsidence is a sure sign of loosening of an implant

      Superior

      Higher; opposite of inferior; superioris, a Latin form of the adjective

      Supinate

      To turn the palm of the hand upward (opposite: pronate)

      Supine

      Lying flat on the back (opposite: prone)

      Supra

      Prefix meaning "above;" super has same meaning; opposite of sub

      Surgical pearls

      Expert surgical techniques or tips developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures

      Surgical technique

      A series of steps required to complete a surgical procedure (or operation)

      Symphysis

      A growing together

      Synovectomy

      An immovable joint

      Synovia

      A union of bones by means of cartilage

      Synovial Membrane

      A thin tissue that lines the capsule surrounding the joint

      T

      Talus

      The ankle; a bone of the ankle. The tarsal bone articulating with the distal tibia and fibula.

      Tarsus

      (1) The instep; the seven bones forming the back portion of the foot (2) Connective tissue framework of the eyelids.

      Telesession

      An instructional course or lecture provided by one-way video, often a telesession consists of an expert surgeon discussing and/or demonstrating specific techniques or characteristics of an implant system.

      Template

      An outline used to trace bones in order to standardize its form; surgeons use templates of implants to measure against a patient’s x-rays to select the best size and best design for the patient’s anatomy and surgical needs.

      Tendon

      Fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones and other parts. Syn. - sinew

      Tensile strength

      A biomechanical measurement of the amount of stress required to cause a given material to fail.

      Thoracic

      Pertaining to the chest; thoracico or thoraco, containing forms

      Ti

      The abbreviation for Titanium, a metal often used in implants

      Tibia

      Latin name of shin bone. Larger bone in the lower leg. Pertaining to the tibia; Latin adjective, tibialis

      Tissue

      A collection of similar cells specialized to perform a particular function

      Titanium

      A metal often used in the manufacture of orthopedic devices or implants. It has good fatigue, wear and strength characteristics and is often combined with other metals in alloys which enhance desirable characteristics.

      Trabecular

      A type of mature bone commonly found at the ends of bones, it is composed of a latticework of bony plates and columns. Its structure gives trabecular bone a great deal of strength despite having less bony material than cortical bone.

      Trochanter

      Either of two bony processes of the upper femoral shaft for muscle attachment

      Trochlear groove

      The articular portion of the anterior surface of the distal femur (the front-facing notch at the lowest part of the femur where the femur joins the knee joint, this groove provides a shallow depression where the patella slides as the knee articulates).

      Tubercle

      A small rounded elevation of eminence on a bone

      Tuberosity

      Broad eminence on a bone

      U

      UHMWPE

      Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, a type of polyethylene with superior wear properties, very commonly used in orthopedic devices. (see also polyethylene, plastic)

      Ulna

      The inner and larger bone or the forearm; In the correct anatomic position, palms forward, the inner and larger bone of the forearm, between the wrist and the elbow, on the side opposite the thumb.

      Ultra-congruent

      Highly congruent, contains a high degree of constraint between two articular implants (see also congruent)

      Uncemented

      A prosthesis that is implanted without cement (see also press-fit)

      UNI

      Unicompartmental knee (also can be the abbreviation for unilateral)

      Unilateral

      One-sided, affecting only one-side (ex. a unilateral knee replacement would replace just one knee, not both) (see also uni)

      V

      Valgus

      A term denoting position meaning bent outward (knock-knee) or twisted, applied especially to deformities in which a part is bent outward. Also increased femoral head-neck angle

      Value-added services

      This is a broad term that encompasses systems that help orthopedic customers (surgeons and hospitals) meet the demands of managed care, these systems are not directly related to orthopedic implants

      Varus

      (1) Turned inward; bowlegged. (2) A condition in which a clubfooted person walks on outer border of the foot. Also, decreased femoral head-neck angle

      Vastus

      Wide or great

      Vertex

      The summit or apex

      Viscous

      Sticky or gummy, thick fluid

      Vitreous

      Glassy

      Voluntary

      Performed in accordance with the will; opposite of involuntary

      W

      Wear

      The loss of material from solid surfaces due to mechanical abrasion

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      Talk to your surgeon about whether joint replacement or another treatment is right for you and the risks of the procedure, including the risk of implant wear, loosening or failure, and pain, swelling and infection. Zimmer Biomet does not practice medicine; only a surgeon can answer your questions regarding your individual symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
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